Cervical Spine Deformity

Indications, Considerations, and Surgical Outcomes

Samuel K. Cho, MD; Scott Safir, MD; Joseph M. Lombardi, MD; Jun S. Kim, MD


J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2019;27(12):e555-e567. 

In This Article


CSD is an uncommon but debilitating condition with myriad etiologies but with iatrogenic-induced deformity being the most common cause. Depending on the severity of the deformity, the flexibility, and the surgical approach, the complication rate can be high. The relationship of CSD to TLD has been studied; sagittal imbalance in the lumbar spine can lead to painful compensatory changes in the CS. At this time, the subject of CSD represents a moving target as our understanding of cervical and thoracolumbar alignment evolves.