Histology of Pulmonary and Bronchiolar Disorders in Connective Tissue Diseases

Cecilia Brambilla, MD; Alexandra Rice, FRCPath; Andrew G. Nicholson, FRCPath


Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;40(2):147-158. 

In This Article


The spectrum of pulmonary pathology associated with CTDs is broad, and histological patterns are nonspecific, often overlapping with primary idiopathic lung disease or other pathology. Diagnosis often depends on multidisciplinary review, but the role of the pathologist is central. By identifying the patterns and severity of the disease process, excluding secondary complications, and raising the possibility of occult CTD in patients with lung limited disease, the pathologist often provides key information with therapeutic and prognostic implications (Table 3).