New Findings, Pathophysiology, and Antigen Analysis in Pollen-Food Allergy Syndrome

Akiko Yagami; Motohiro Ebisawa


Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;19(3):218-223. 

In This Article

Causative Allergens of Pollen-food Allergy Syndrome

Many fruit allergies are being studied to determine and characterize the causative allergens.[17] Protein allergens can be related by cross-reactivity that is based on shared epitopes; that is, shared sequences and higher level structures (charge and shape). In PFAS, the major allergens belong to a group exhibiting high-level homology with Bet v 1.[18] The next most frequent allergen is food allergen showing high-level homology with Bet v 2 (profilin), another birch pollen antigen.[19] LTP is also an important allergen cause of plant-food allergies often associated with severe reactions.[20] Deng et al. described the possible involvement of two different types of PFAS in birch pollen-related food allergy: the main allergens of apples and hazelnuts are Mal d 1 and Cor a 1 (Bet v 1 homolog), whereas in mugwort pollen-related food allergy, the major allergens are Mal d 3 and Cor a 8 (LTP).[21] In a separate European study, the existence of the following two patterns of apple allergy were observed; symptoms of apple allergy are mild and the main allergen is Mal d 1 in Austria and Italy, whereas apple allergy shows severe symptoms and the major allergen is Mal d 3 in Spain.[22]