Urinary Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer: Where Do We Stand?

Abhishek Bhat; Chad R. Ritch


Curr Opin Urol. 2019;29(3):203-209. 

In This Article


There are a growing number of urine-based assays for bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of these have the desired combination of sensitivity and specificity to justify their cost and routine use. The majority show higher sensitivity than cytology for low-grade cancers, but with the trade-off of lower specificity. Promising results are emerging from platforms that incorporate a combination of genes and epigenetic markers. Further research is necessary and it is important that these trials are conducted in the appropriate population, with sound rationale and clinically relevant endpoints to justify their cost and incorporation into practice.[42]