Two-year Mortality and Functional Outcomes in Combat-related Penetrating Brain Injury: Battlefield Through Rehabilitation

M. Benjamin Larkin, MD, PharmD; Erin K. M. Graves, MD, MA; Jason H. Boulter, MD; Nicholas S. Szuflita, MD, MPH; R. Michael Meyer, MD; Michael E. Porambo, MD; John J. Delaney, MD; Randy S. Bell, MD


Neurosurg Focus. 2019;45(6):e4 

In This Article


Long-term functional outcomes in the setting of PBI were good for those who survived to evaluation and treatment at the Role 3 Multinational Medical Unit in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Those who presented with lower admission GCS score, higher ISS, gunshot wound as the mechanism of PBI, and herniation on CT had worse functional outcomes at all time points. Two-thirds of the patients in this study with admission GCS scores ≤ 5 survived to achieve good functional outcomes. Overall, mortality from PBI in this study was higher than that reported in prior military cohort studies and lower than that reported in studies of civilian populations.