Relationship of Lifestyle, Exercise, and Nutrition With Glaucoma

Claudio I. Perez; Kuldev Singh; Shan Lin


Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2019;30(2):82-88. 

In This Article

Body Mass Index

Although obesity has been associated with higher IOP,[8,15,29,30] a lower body mass index (BMI) has been related to a higher incidence of normal tension glaucoma,[29,31] especially in women[29,31] and at younger age (40–49 decade).[31] Furthermore, two recent population-based studies done in Korean study participants have investigated the influence of other anthropometric parameters, such as fat mass and muscle mass with IOP and the incidence of POAG.[32,33] Greater fat mass was associated with higher IOP, and greater muscle mass was associated with lower IOP among Korean women, after adjusting for weight and BMI.[32] In women, higher fat mass was associated with lower POAG prevalence, whereas in men, higher muscle mass was positively correlated with POAG.[33] The exact mechanisms of how the different body compositions seemed to affect the prevalence of POAG remain unclear. The finding that a higher BMI is related to a decreased prevalence of POAG has led to the hypothesis that a higher intracranial pressure, which is linked to a higher BMI, may protect against optic nerve damage.[34] Finally, among patients with POAG, a prospective study showed that patients with lower BMI developed more paracentral visual defects in comparison with patients with higher BMI.[13] These findings suggest that patients at risk for or with glaucoma, especially young women, may wish to maintain a healthy weight with a BMI between 20 and 25 kg/m2.