Relationship of Lifestyle, Exercise, and Nutrition With Glaucoma

Claudio I. Perez; Kuldev Singh; Shan Lin


Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2019;30(2):82-88. 

In This Article

Alcohol Consumption

Population-studies such as the Beaver Dam Eye Study[5] and the Rotterdam Study[8] have shown no association between alcohol consumption and glaucoma. Also a large prospective study[22] and a recent case-control[10] study failed to show any significant association between alcohol consumption and glaucoma risk. Nevertheless, a prospective study in African-American women showed a positive association between current alcohol consumption and the incidence of POAG, especially among women under 50 years old.[23] Recently, a higher level of alcohol intake has been associated with a lower peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness after adjusting for other confounders, such as age and axial length.[24] However, this was an anatomic finding that was not correlated with the development of glaucoma. To date, there is no strong association of alcohol consumption with the prevalence of glaucoma, although the neurodegenerative properties of chronic alcohol intake may be a risk factor for glaucoma development in populations at higher risk, such as African-American women.[23] It is important to consider the hypothesis that different alcoholic formulations may have varying impact on ocular health. Flavonoids present in red wine have been proposed to have a protective effect against the development of glaucoma.[25] The evidence regarding flavonoid consumption will be discussed later in this article.