Penile Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Factors

A Contemporary Review

Antoin Douglawi; Timothy A. Masterson


Curr Opin Urol. 2019;29(2):145-149. 

In This Article

Lichen Sclerosus and Balanitis Xerotic Obliterans

Chronic inflammatory states have been implicated in the development of multiple types of neoplasms. Balanitis and Posthitis have been reported to pose a 3.82-fold increased risk of penile SqCC and the resulting phimosis can lead to a 12-fold increased risk.[30] Lichen Sclerosus (LS) and Balanitis Xerotic Obliterans (BXO) are lymphocyte mediated, chronic, inflammatory conditions that affect the glans and prepuce. They are induced by fungal infections, most commonly Candida Albicans, and tend to affect immunocompromised individuals.[27] If left unchecked, phimosis and distal urethral strictures can be the result.[31] A study of circumcision specimens noted Lichen Sclerosus in 14% of young adults and 40% of older men.[32] A series of 86 men showed a 5.8% concurrent diagnosis of penile SqCC and Lichen Sclerosus at resection and an average lag time of 17 years from Lichen Sclerosus diagnosis to development of SqCC.[33] Lichen Sclerosus was even found to develop in extragenital skin grafts; however, its effect on recurrent SqCC was not elucidated.[34]