Penile Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Factors

A Contemporary Review

Antoin Douglawi; Timothy A. Masterson


Curr Opin Urol. 2019;29(2):145-149. 

In This Article

Socioeconomic Factors

Low socioeconomic status is generally associated with increased cancer risk.[9] The effect is magnified in penile cancer given the rarity of the disease and poor awareness among the general population. It is not uncommon for patients to delay seeking medical treatment. A report by Skeppner revealed a delay of more than 6 months because of embarrassment and stigma attached to the disease.[10] A recent Swedish study of 1676 men noted similar results. Men who were living in a single person household or had a low disposable income were at increased risk for both Tis and T1--T4 tumors.[4] Marital status also plays a role with a population-based study showing decreased incidence rates in married men compared to those who are single.[11]