An Evolutionary Concept Analysis of Urinary Incontinence

Nicole Zhang


Urol Nurs. 2018;38(6):289-295. 

In This Article

Methods of Analysis of Urinary Incontinence

Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis (RECA) was used to develop this UI concept analysis. The goal of a concept analysis is to define UI based on attributes or "essences" (Rodgers, 2000). Traditionally, concept analyses approach concepts as static entities. However, more recently, the trend has been to consider concepts as ever-changing and dynamic. This trend was sparked in large part by Rodgers' (1989) methods, which proposed a method of concept analysis that spoke to the fluidity of concepts.

Rodgers (2000) described six steps to conducting a concept analysis. These steps are: 1) identify and name the concept of interest and associated and surrogate terms, relevant uses of the concept; 2) identify and select an appropriate realm (sample) for data collection; 3) collect data, including identifying the attributes and antecedents of the concept; 4) analyze the data; 5) identify an exemplar; and 6) identify implications, hypotheses, and future development of the concept.

Steps 1 and 2 have been completed thus far, leading to the third. Using the search engines of CINHAL, Pubmed, Anthropology Plus, and Social Work Abstracts, peer-reviewed articles were identified using the search terms urinary incontinence, micturition, voiding, and continence singularly and in all combinations. Medical and nursing literature produced the most results; social work and anthropology produced less than 40 articles specifically related to UI. Next CINHAL and PubMed were again searched with additional terms to narrow the population and these terms included elders, geriatrics, and/or nursing home to focus the search more specifically to the question at hand. Additionally, guidelines from the International Continence Society (ICS) were examined. Finally, once the literature revealed the term incontinence had philosophical roots, Philosophical Index (PI) was further searched. For this search, dates of the literature were not limited because it is important to understand the history of the usage of the term to understand the current situation as it pertains to nursing. This is the evolutionary nature.