Dysglycemia-Based Chronic Disease: An American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Position Statement

Jeffrey I. Mechanick, MD, FACP, FACE, FACN, ECNU; Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE; George Grunberger, MD, FACP, FACE; Yehuda Handelsman, MD, FACP, FNLA, MACE; W. Timothy Garvey, MD, FACE


Endocr Pract. 2018;24(11):995-1011. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction


The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) has created a dysglycemia-based chronic disease (DBCD) multimorbidity care model consisting of four distinct stages along the insulin resistance-prediabetes-type 2 diabetes (T2D) spectrum that are actionable in a preventive care paradigm to reduce the potential impact of T2D, cardiometabolic risk, and cardiovascular events. The controversy of whether there is value, cost-effectiveness, or clinical benefit of diagnosing and/or managing the prediabetes state is resolved by regarding the problem, not in isolation, but as an intermediate stage in the continuum of a progressive chronic disease with opportunities for multiple concurrent prevention strategies. In this context, stage 1 represents "insulin resistance," stage 2 "prediabetes," stage 3 "type 2 diabetes," and stage 4 "vascular complications." This model encourages earliest intervention focusing on structured lifestyle change. Further scientific research may eventually reclassify stage 2 DBCD prediabetes from a predisease to a true disease state. This position statement is consistent with a portfolio of AACE endocrine disease care models, including adiposity-based chronic disease, that prioritize patient-centered care, evidence-based medicine, complexity, multimorbid chronic disease, the current health care environment, and a societal mandate for a higher value attributed to good health. Ultimately, transformative changes in diagnostic coding and reimbursement structures for prediabetes and T2D can provide improvements in population-based endocrine health care.