Effect of Media Use on Adolescent Body Weight

Eun Me Cha, MPH, PhD; Deanna M. Hoelscher, PhD; Nalini Ranjit, PhD; Baojiang Chen, PhD; Kelley Pettee Gabriel, MS, PhD; Steven Kelder, MPH, PhD; Debra L. Saxton, MS

Disclosures

Prev Chronic Dis. 2018;15(11):e141 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Abstract

Introduction: Adolescents spend a substantial amount of time consuming media, including watching television, playing video games, and using electronic devices to access the internet. We examined the relationship between prolonged media use on screen devices and its potential association with obesity through several mechanisms.

Methods: We used data from 659,288 eighth and eleventh grade students who participated in the 2015–2016 School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey in Texas to examine the associations between hours of media use per day and 3 behaviors related to obesity: timing of last food intake, unhealthy eating behavior, and sleep hours. Also, mediation analyses were conducted to examine the pathways between hours of media use and body mass index (BMI).

Results: Compared with adolescents who used media 2 hours or less per day, those who used media 6 hours or more had higher odds of nighttime eating (odds ratio [OR], 3.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76–5.66) and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05–2.36) and a higher coefficient for Unhealthy Eating Index score (3.87; 95% CI, 1.3–6.37). Mediation analysis demonstrated that for males sleep hours and timing of last food intake mediated the pathway between hours of media use and BMI. For females, unhealthy eating behavior mediated this pathway.

Conclusion: Adolescents who used electronic media 6 or more hours at night had higher odds of unhealthy eating behavior and inadequate sleep hours than those with 2 hours' use or less. Attention to behaviors associated with adolescents' prolonged media use is needed to reduce risk of obesity.

Introduction

Adolescents are inundated with media and spend more than 6 hours each day watching television, YouTube, and movies; playing video games; listening to music; and surfing the internet.[1] Use of television and other screen devices (eg, smartphone, tablets, computers) is associated with risk of obesity through a variety of mechanisms, including insufficient physical activity and increased calorie intake while using screen devices.[2,3]

Several studies have shown that increased media use is associated with shorter and poorer quality sleep,[3,4] which is also a significant risk factor for obesity.[5,6] After-school screen time is associated with increased size of evening snack portions and overall poor diet quality in adolescents.[7] Moreover, epidemiologic studies have reported that consuming most daily calories in the evening is associated with higher body mass index (BMI) and an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Taken together, media use is associated with negative effects on a variety of adolescent health behaviors, including unhealthy eating at night and inadequate sleep hours, which can ultimately lead to increased risk of overweight and obesity.[2–9] However, few studies have examined the association between media use and timing of last food intake, unhealthy eating, and inadequate sleep hours in a representative sample of adolescents. Because Texas has the second largest population of US states and is racially diverse,[10] patterns observed there may be used as an indicator of national prevalence of media use and related behaviors among adolescents.

The two objectives of our study were 1) to examine the association between categories of increased hours of media use as the targeted exposure variable and 3 behavioral outcomes (timing of last food intake, unhealthy eating behaviors, and hours of sleep, stratified by sex); and 2) to test the mediation effects of timing of last food intake, unhealthy eating behavior, and sleep hours between hours of media use and BMI, stratified by sex. We hypothesized that media use would be positively associated with the 3 behavioral outcomes and that these outcomes would also act as mediators between hours of media use and BMI in an adolescent population. This article was written in accordance with the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement.[11]

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