Acute Respiratory Failure and Pulmonary Complications in End-Stage Liver Disease

Nida Qadir, MD; Tisha Wang, MD; Igor Barjaktarevic, MD, PhD; Steven Y. Chang, MD, PhD


Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;39(5):546-555. 

In This Article

Pulmonary Complications for Which ESLD Patients are at Higher Risk

Complications from ESLD can cause a number of conditions resulting in acute respiratory failure. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction leads to increased susceptibility to sepsis and pneumonia.[53] Requirements for blood product transfusion may cause volume overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Increasing ascites frequently leads to atelectasis and pleural effusions. Patients may develop aspiration in the setting of hepatic encephalopathy. Additionally, chronic liver disease is a risk factor for developing ARDS (Table 2).[54]