Nivolumab Induced Encephalopathy in a Man With Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer

A Case Report

Jindřich Kopecký; Ondřej Kubeček; Tomáš Geryk; Birgita Slováčková; Petr Hoffmann; Miroslav Žiaran; Peter Priester


J Med Case Reports. 2018;12(262) 

In This Article


The major problem with immune checkpoint inhibitors is the relatively short-term collective experience. Hence, there is an urgent need to extend physicians' and patients' knowledge of possible complications of this promising treatment modality. This is especially important for rare but potentially fatal complications. Therefore, it is of great importance to include this topic in multidisciplinary tumor board meetings. Considering the rarity of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related encephalitis, it is essential to report such cases and share experience regarding treatment approaches and diagnostic tools. Immune-related encephalitis is a severe and potentially fatal complication requiring immediate hospital admission and extensive immunosuppressive therapy. The examination of CSF for paraneoplastic antibodies such as anti-NMDA receptor and anti-Ma2 antibodies in order to distinguish autoimmune etiology from other possible causes is essential and highly recommended.