Ocular Allergy as a Risk Factor for Dry Eye in Adults and Children

Edoardo Villani; Giovanni Rabbiolo; Paolo Nucci


Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;18(5):398-403. 

In This Article

Ocular Allergy and Tear Film Hyperosmolarity

Hyperosmolarity of the tear film is a core mechanism of DED[18] and, thanks to the existence of a validated point-of-care tear film osmometer, it has been recently incorporated in the diagnostic algorithm proposed by the TFOS DEWS II.[4]

The previously discussed impact of ocular allergy on tear film stability provides a strong rationale to hypothesize an effect of these conditions on tear film osmolarity, mediated by increased evaporation. However, at the moment, this issue has been investigated by a single uncontrolled study (level IV of evidence),[25] which reported in eyes with acute allergic rhinoconjunctivitis mean values of tear osmolarity ranging from 318 and 324 mOsm/l, therefore higher than threshold adopted for diagnosis of DED (308 mOsm/l).[26]