Pediatric Calculi: Cause, Prevention and Medical Management

Cesare M. Scoffone; Cecilia M. Cracco


Curr Opin Urol. 2018;28(5):428-432. 

In This Article

Medical History and Physical Examination

Medical history should focus on fluid intake, diet (including sodium and protein intake), medications and supplements (vitamin D, C, calcium, diuretics, steroids and seizure medications), the search for a positive family history of urolithiasis, physical examination and presence or absence of specific disorders that can lead to nephrolithiasis (including urinary tract obstruction, vesico-ureteral reflux, inflammatory bowel diseases, cystic fibrosis, prolonged immobilization or others).

It has also been proposed that epithelial dysfunction and inflammation may predispose patients to kidney stone formation. Asthma is a chronic condition related to epithelial dysfunction and inflammation. Children with asthma have a four-fold greater prevalence of kidney stones than the general pediatric population. Similarly, children with kidney stones have a four-fold greater prevalence of asthma.[32] Because of the increased risk to children of developing long-term sequelae, there is a strong need for increased research into the mechanisms of systemic inflammatory diseases and improved therapeutic targets.[6]