Pediatric Calculi: Cause, Prevention and Medical Management

Cesare M. Scoffone; Cecilia M. Cracco


Curr Opin Urol. 2018;28(5):428-432. 

In This Article

The Contribution of the Dietary Factors

Inadequate fluid consumption with low urine volume (increasing the relative supersaturation of urine and promoting nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate and uric acid), excessive salt intake (there is competition between sodium and calcium for passive resorption along the nephron), decreased intake of dietary calcium (calcium restriction induces a rise in calcitriol levels, promoting urinary calcium excretion; apart from this, it is contraindicated in children, who need calcium for a normal growth), excessive animal protein intake or ketogenic diets (acid load from protein metabolism causes hypercalciuria and hycitraturia, whereas intake of purines increases uric acid) may be causative factors for pediatric nephrolithiasis.[1,2,10,13,29]