Pediatric Calculi: Cause, Prevention and Medical Management

Cesare M. Scoffone; Cecilia M. Cracco


Curr Opin Urol. 2018;28(5):428-432. 

In This Article

The Role of Environmental and Geographic Factors

Among the risk factors affecting incidence of nephrolithiasis, the environmental and geographic ones are relevant. In many developing countries, dehydration due to the hot dry climate, febrile illnesses and chronic diarrhea and dietary deficiencies due to poverty and malnutrition are the main causes of stone disease.[15,19,20] In northeast Thailand, the high prevalence of renal stones is associated with the high prevalence of tubular acidosis.[9] In North India and in other regions of the world, like Florida and Ukraine, the absence of Oxalobacter formigenes, a commensal intestinal oxalate-degrading bacterium – also able to stimulate oxalate transport through the gut epithelium and to promote its release into the gastrointestinal tract lumen, can cause an absorptive hyperoxaluria, leading to an increased risk of developing calcium oxalate stones.[21,22]