Management of Acute Respiratory Failure in Interstitial Lung Diseases

Overview and Clinical Insights

Paola Faverio; Federica De Giacomi; Luca Sardella; Giuseppe Fiorentino; Mauro Carone; Francesco Salerno; Jousel Ora; Paola Rogliani; Giulia Pellegrino; Giuseppe Francesco Sferrazza Papa; Francesco Bini; Bruno Dino Bodini; Grazia Messinesi; Alberto Pesci; Antonio Esquinas


BMC Pulm Med. 2018;18(70) 

In This Article


Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that includes more than 200 entities characterized by widespread fibrotic and/or inflammatory abnormalities of the lung parenchyma, Figure 1.[1,2] Respiratory failure is a common complication in advanced stages or following acute worsening of ILDs and can be classified on the basis of different parameters, including time of onset (acute or chronic), severity (mild to severe), and causes (reversible or irreversible).

Figure 1.

Classification of Interstitial Lung Diseases. Footnotes: RA = Rheumatoid Arthritis; PM/DM = polymyositis/dermatomyositis; LAM = lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Aim of this review is to evaluate the current evidence in determining the best management of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in ILDs.