Gender-Based Differences Among Pharmacy Students Involved in Academically Dishonest Behavior

Eric J. Ip, PharmD; Jai Pal, MS; Shadi Doroudgar, PharmD; Monica K. Bidwal, PharmD; Bijal Shah-Manek, PhD, B.Pharm


Am J Pharm Educ. 2018;82(4) 

In This Article


A 45-item cross-sectional survey was distributed to students during a regularly scheduled class session at the four Northern California pharmacy schools (Touro University California College of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy, and University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy) between November 4, 2014 and March 21, 2015. Details of the methods have been described by Ip and colleagues wherein they assessed the prevalence, methods, and motivating factors of academic dishonesty in pharmacy students as well as if certain factors may put a student at a higher risk of performing such acts.[6] The current study is a sub-analysis focusing on two cohorts, male and female second-year students who had not yet progressed to Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs). Surveys with less than 80% of questions answered were deemed incomplete and were excluded from the study. Those who did not specify the survey taker's gender were also excluded. The survey assessed cheating history, performance of various forms of academically dishonest behavior, and perceptions of academically dishonest behavior.[11,14] Perceptions of academically dishonest behavior were based on five hypothetical scenarios from Rabi and colleagues.[11] The study received approval from Touro University California's Institutional Review Board.

Data analyses were conducted using STATA version 13.0 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX). Means and standard deviations were reported for continuous data as a measure of central tendency, while frequencies and percentages were reported for categorical data. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to compare the differences of academic dishonesty between male and female students. Statistical significance was defined as a p value of less than .05.