Overexpression of FIBCD1 Is Predictive of Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer

Chunyi Jiang, MA; Jinhong Zhu, MD; Pengcheng Zhou, MA; Huijun Zhu; Wei Wang, MA; Qin Jin, MA; Peng Li, MD

Disclosures

Am J Clin Pathol. 2018;149(6):474-48. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Abstract

Objectives Fibrinogen C domain containing 1 (FIBCD1) is a newly identified acetyl group recognition receptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of FIBCD1 in gastric cancer.

Methods This study included 706 samples, and the clinical data of all patients were recorded in detail. We studied messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of FIBCD1 in cancerous and normal tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 54) and tissue microarray immunohistochemistry analysis (n = 706), respectively.

Results mRNA and protein expression levels of FIBCD1 were significantly higher in gastric cancer than in normal tissues. High FIBCD1 protein level showed significant correlations with age (P = .011), TNM stage (P < .001), serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (P = .002), and the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (P < .001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with gastric cancer with high levels of FIBCD1 had a significantly shorter survival time than those with low expression levels. In univariate analysis, high FIBCD1 expression, older age, histologic type, differentiation, TNM stage, serum CEA, and serum CA19-9 level correlated with overall survival. Multivariate analysis suggested that FIBCD1 expression was an independent prognostic factor.

Conclusions FIBCD1 may be a novel biomarker to evaluate the prognosis of gastric cancer.

Introduction

Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. The 5-year overall survival rate of gastric cancer is only 15% to 20%.[1–3] Early diagnosis is the key factor determining treatment outcome, and surgery is the first choice of treatment. The rate of diagnosis of early gastric cancer has increased annually with the development of a screening test;[4,5] however, most patients with gastric cancer are still diagnosed in the late stage of disease when the opportunity for surgery has passed because of the lack of obvious clinical symptoms in the early stage.[6] Although chemotherapy has shown some survival benefit, most chemotherapy regimens have limitations, and efficacies are not satisfactory.[7,8] Biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity are imperative for improving disease prevention and diagnosis, development of targeted therapies, and prediction of prognosis.[9] Consequently, the discovery of valuable biomarkers has become a major focus of current research. By exploring The Cancer Genome Atlas database, we identified a number of novel protein molecules that are expressed differentially between tumor and normal tissues.

One such protein is fibrinogen C domain containing 1 (FIBCD1), a protein of 461 amino acids.[10] FIBCD1 is a newly identified acetyl group recognition receptor, with a known ligand of chitin; it binds acetyl groups on chitin via a fibrinogen-like recognition domain.[11] The FIBCD1 gene is located on human chromosome 9q34.1.[12] FIBCD1 is expressed mainly on intestinal epithelial cells and airway epithelial cells and is also detected on epithelial cells lining the salivary ducts.[13]

To date, the expression of FIBCD1 protein and its association with clinicopathologic features in gastric cancer have not been explored. In this retrospective study, we examined FIBCD1 gene transcripts and protein expression in gastric cancer and normal tissue samples by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and tissue microarray immunohistochemistry analysis (TMA-IHC), respectively, and analyzed the correlation between FIBCD1 and patients' clinical characteristics and its prognostic implications.

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