Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome

Public Health Implications and a Novel Model Treatment Guideline

Jeff Lapoint, DO; Seth Meyer, MD; Charles K. Yu, MD; Kristi L. Koenig, MD; Roneet Lev, MD; Sayone Thihalolipavan, MD, MPH; Katherine Staats, MD; Christopher A. Kahn, MD, MPH

Disclosures

Western J Emerg Med. 2018;19(2):380-386. 

In This Article

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome

CHS is a condition defined by symptoms including significant nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain in the setting of chronic cannabis use.[7] Cardinal diagnostic characteristics associated with CHS include regular cannabis use, cyclic nausea and vomiting, and compulsive hot baths or showers with resolution of symptoms after cessation of cannabis use. Cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a related condition consisting of symptoms of relentless vomiting and retching. While CHS patients present with similar symptoms to those with CVS, associated cannabis use is required to make the diagnosis.

CHS patients present to the ED with non-specific symptoms that are similar to other intra-abdominal conditions. These patients command substantial ED and hospital resources. In a small multicenter ambispective cohort study by Perrotta et al., the mean number of ED visits and hospital admissions for 20 suspected CHS patients identified over a two-year period was 17.3 ± 13.6 and 6.8 ± 9.4 respectively.10 These patients frequently undergo expensive and non-diagnostic abdominal imaging studies. In the Perrotta study, the mean number of abdominal computed tomography scans and abdominal/pelvic ultrasounds per patient was 5.3 ± 4.1 and 3.8 ± 3.6 respectively. In addition to a contribution to ED crowding by unnecessary prolonged stays to perform diagnostic testing, patients are exposed to potential side effects of medications, peripheral intravenous lines, and procedures such as endoscopies and abdominal surgeries.[7,11,12] While treating physicians often administer opioid analgesics and antiemetics, symptom relief is rarely achieved with this strategy. In fact, there is evidence to suggest opioids may exacerbate symptoms.[6,7]

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