Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: An Overview

Essie Samuel, PharmD, BCPS; Jiehyun Lee, PharmD, BCACP, CACP


US Pharmacist. 2017;42(10):42-47. 

In This Article

Reductions in BP and Weight

Several RCTs of SGLT2 inhibitors have evaluated changes in systolic BP (SBP) and weight as secondary endpoints. In RCTs that compared SGLT2 inhibitors with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors significantly reduced SBP by approximately 3 to 5 mmHg and weight by roughly 4 to 6 pounds.[5–7] Positive effects on weight and BP also were seen in RCTs comparing SGLT2 inhibitors with other antidiabetic agents.[8]

The BP-lowering effect is most likely due to osmotic diuresis, which is believed to contribute to the initial weight loss as well. Gradual weight loss is thought to be caused by a reduction in adipose tissue as well as calorie loss through glycosuria.[8] These additional benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors are theorized to contribute to positive CV outcomes; accordingly, a number of trials are investigating the CV benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors.