Integrative Medicine as an Adjunct to Orthopaedic Surgery

James R. Ficke, MD; Nathan M. Moroski, MD; Steven D. Ross, MD; Ranjan Gupta, MD


J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2018;26(2):58-65. 

In This Article

Established Forms of Integrative Medicine

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), which was originally known as the Office of Alternative Medicine, was first established in 1991. This is one of 27 institutes and centers that comprise the NIH. The role of the NCCIH is to fund research on integrative medicine as well as to support clinical trials of integrative medicine techniques. According to the NCCIH, integrative medicine can be broken down into two main categories: natural products and mind-and-body practices. Natural products include a variety of biologically based products including herbs, plants and botanic derivatives, and probiotics, as well as nonvitamins and nonminerals. Mind-and-body practices include a large, diverse group of procedures and techniques including yoga, manipulation (eg, chiropractic, massage, osteopathic), meditation, relaxation techniques, aroma therapy, and energy therapy (eg, Reiki, magnets, tai chi, qigong). These two groups define most complementary health approaches; however, approaches that do not fit well into the first two groups (eg, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, homeopathy, naturopathy) are part of a third group: "alternative medical systems"[2,12] (Table 2).