Endocrine Treatment of Gender-dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons

An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

Wylie C. Hembree; Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis; Louis Gooren; Sabine E. Hannema; Walter J. Meyer; M. Hassan Murad; Stephen M. Rosenthal; Joshua D. Safer; Vin Tangpricha; Guy G. T'Sjoen


J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102(11):3869-3903. 

In This Article

Hormonal Therapy for Transgender Adults

The two major goals of hormonal therapy are[1] to reduce endogenous sex hormone levels, and thus reduce the secondary sex characteristics of the individual's designated gender, and[2] to replace endogenous sex hormone levels consistent with the individual's gender identity by using the principles of hormone replacement treatment of hypogonadal patients. The timing of these two goals and the age at which to begin treatment with the sex hormones of the chosen gender is codetermined in collaboration with both the person pursuing transition and the health care providers. The treatment team should include a medical provider knowledgeable in transgender hormone therapy, an MHP knowledgeable in GD/gender incongruence and the mental health concerns of transition, and a primary care provider able to provide care appropriate for transgender individuals. The physical changes induced by this sex hormone transition are usually accompanied by an improvement in mental well-being.[129,130]

1. We recommend that clinicians confirm the diagnostic criteria of GD/gender incongruence and the criteria for the endocrine phase of gender transition before beginning treatment. (1 |⊕⊕⊕⊖)

2. We recommend that clinicians evaluate and address medical conditions that can be exacerbated by hormone depletion and treatment with sex hormones of the affirmed gender before beginning treatment (Table 10). (1 |⊕⊕⊕⊖)

3. We suggest that clinicians measure hormone levels during treatment to ensure that endogenous sex steroids are suppressed and administered sex steroids are maintained in the normal physiologic range for the affirmed gender. (2 |⊕⊕⊖⊖)


It is the responsibility of the treating clinician to confirm that the person fulfills criteria for treatment. The treating clinician should become familiar with the terms and criteria presented in Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4 and Table 5 and take a thorough history from the patient in collaboration with the other members of the treatment team. The treating clinician must ensure that the desire for transition is appropriate; the consequences, risks, and benefits of treatment are well understood; and the desire for transition persists. They also need to discuss fertility preservation options (see recommendation 1.3).[67,68]

Transgender males. Clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of several different androgen preparations to induce masculinization in transgender males (Appendix A).[113,114,131–134] Regimens to change secondary sex characteristics follow the general principle of hormone replacement treatment of male hypogonadism.[135] Clinicians can use either parenteral or transdermal preparations to achieve testosterone values in the normal male range (this is dependent on the specific assay, but is typically 320 to 1000 ng/dL) (Table 11).[136] Sustained supraphysiologic levels of testosterone increase the risk of adverse reactions (see section 4.0 "Adverse Outcome Prevention and Long-Term Care") and should be avoided.

Similar to androgen therapy in hypogonadal men, testosterone treatment in transgender males results in increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass, increased facial hair and acne, male pattern baldness in those genetically predisposed, and increased sexual desire.[137]

In transgender males, testosterone will result in clitoromegaly, temporary or permanent decreased fertility, deepening of the voice, cessation of menses (usually), and a significant increase in body hair, particularly on the face, chest, and abdomen. Cessation of menses may occur within a few months with testosterone treatment alone, although high doses of testosterone may be required. If uterine bleeding continues, clinicians may consider the addition of a progestational agent or endometrial ablation.[138] Clinicians may also administer GnRH analogs or depot medroxyprogesterone to stop menses prior to testosterone treatment.

Transgender females. The hormone regimen for transgender females is more complex than the transgender male regimen (Appendix B). Treatment with physiologic doses of estrogen alone is insufficient to suppress testosterone levels into the normal range for females.[139] Most published clinical studies report the need for adjunctive therapy to achieve testosterone levels in the female range.[21,113,114,132–134,139,140]

Multiple adjunctive medications are available, such as progestins with antiandrogen activity and GnRH agonists.[141] Spironolactone works by directly blocking androgens during their interaction with the androgen receptor.[114,133,142] It may also have estrogenic activity.[143] Cyproterone acetate, a progestational compound with antiandrogenic properties,[113,132,144] is widely used in Europe. 5a-Reductase inhibitors do not reduce testosterone levels and have adverse effects.[145]

Dittrich et al.[141] reported that monthly doses of the GnRH agonist goserelin acetate in combination with estrogen were effective in reducing testosterone levels with a low incidence of adverse reactions in 60 transgender females. Leuprolide and transdermal estrogen were as effective as cyproterone and transdermal estrogen in a comparative retrospective study.[146]

Patients can take estrogen as oral conjugated estrogens, oral 17β-estradiol, or transdermal 17β-estradiol. Among estrogen options, the increased risk of thromboembolic events associated with estrogens in general seems most concerning with ethinyl estradiol specifically,[134,140,141] which is why we specifically suggest that it not be used in any transgender treatment plan. Data distinguishing among other estrogen options are less well established although there is some thought that oral routes of administration are more thrombogenic due to the "first pass effect" than are transdermal and parenteral routes, and that the risk of thromboembolic events is dose-dependent. Injectable estrogen and sublingual estrogen may benefit from avoiding the first pass effect, but they can result in more rapid peaks with greater overall periodicity and thus are more difficult to monitor.[147,148] However, there are no data demonstrating that increased periodicity is harmful otherwise.

Clinicians can use serum estradiol levels to monitor oral, transdermal, and intramuscular estradiol. Blood tests cannot monitor conjugated estrogens or synthetic estrogen use. Clinicians should measure serum estradiol and serum testosterone and maintain them at the level for premenopausal females (100 to 200 pg/mL and <50 ng/dL, respectively). The transdermal preparations and injectable estradiol cypionate or valerate preparations may confer an advantage in older transgender females who may be at higher risk for thromboembolic disease.[149]


Our recommendation to maintain levels of genderaffirming hormones in the normal adult range places a high value on the avoidance of the long-term complications of pharmacologic doses. Those patients receiving endocrine treatment who have relative contraindications to hormones should have an in-depth discussion with their physician to balance the risks and benefits of therapy.


Clinicians should inform all endocrine-treated individuals of all risks and benefits of gender-affirming hormones prior to initiating therapy. Clinicians should strongly encourage tobacco use cessation in transgender females to avoid increased risk of VTE and cardiovascular complications. We strongly discourage the unsupervised use of hormone therapy.[150]

Not all individuals with GD/gender incongruence seek treatment as described (e.g., male-to-eunuchs and individuals seeking partial transition). Tailoring current protocols to the individual may be done within the context of accepted safety guidelines using a multidisciplinary approach including mental health. No evidencebased protocols are available for these groups.[151] We need prospective studies to better understand treatment options for these persons.

4. We suggest that endocrinologists provide education to transgender individuals undergoing treatment about the onset and time course of physical changes induced by sex hormone treatment. (2 |⊕⊖⊖⊖)


Transgender males. Physical changes that are expected to occur during the first 1 to 6 months of testosterone therapy include cessation of menses, increased sexual desire, increased facial and body hair, increased oiliness of skin, increased muscle, and redistribution of fat mass. Changes that occur within the first year of testosterone therapy include deepening of the voice,[152,153] clitoromegaly, and male pattern hair loss (in some cases)[114,144,154,155] (Table 12).

Transgender females. Physical changes that may occur in transgender females in the first 3 to 12 months of estrogen and antiandrogen therapy include decreased sexual desire, decreased spontaneous erections, decreased facial and body hair (usually mild), decreased oiliness of skin, increased breast tissue growth, and redistribution of fat mass[114,139,149,154,155,161] (Table 13). Breast development is generally maximal at 2 years after initiating hormones.[114,139,149,155] Over a long period of time, the prostate gland and testicles will undergo atrophy.

Although the time course of breast development in transgender females has been studied,[150] precise information about other changes induced by sex hormones is lacking.[141] There is a great deal of variability among individuals, as evidenced during pubertal development. We all know that a major concern for transgender females is breast development. If we work with estrogens, the result will be often not what the transgender female expects.

Alternatively, there are transgender females who report an anecdotal improved breast development, mood, or sexual desire with the use of progestogens. However, there have been no well-designed studies of the role of progestogens in feminizing hormone regimens, so the question is still open.

Our knowledge concerning the natural history and effects of different cross-sex hormone therapies on breast development in transgender females is extremely sparse and based on the low quality of evidence. Current evidence does not indicate that progestogens enhance breast development in transgender females, nor does evidence prove the absence of such an effect. This prevents us from drawing any firm conclusion at this moment and demonstrates the need for further research to clarify these important clinical questions.[162]

Values and Preferences

Transgender persons have very high expectations regarding the physical changes of hormone treatment and are aware that body changes can be enhanced by surgical procedures (e.g., breast, face, and body habitus). Clear expectations for the extent and timing of sex hormone–induced changes may prevent the potential harm and expense of unnecessary procedures.