Evolution of a Geriatric Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Treatment of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

Bharathi Upadhya, MD; Barbara Pisani, MD; Dalane W. Kitzman, MD


J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65(11):2431-2440. 

In This Article

Role of Multimorbidity

Older adults hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of HF often have multiple noncardiac comorbidities (5.5 on average).[46] Those with preserved EF have more noncardiac comorbidities (4 on average) than those with reduced EF.[47,48] The most common noncardiac comorbidities are obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), anemia, chronic kidney disease, frailty, cognitive dysfunction, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, liver disease, and rheumatological disorders.[47]