Evolution of a Geriatric Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Treatment of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

Bharathi Upadhya, MD; Barbara Pisani, MD; Dalane W. Kitzman, MD


J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65(11):2431-2440. 

In This Article

Clinical Manifestations of HFpEF

Clinical manifestations of HFpEF are generally similar to those of HFrEF. In the chronic, stable state, even when individuals with HFpEF are relatively euvolemic and well compensated, they have severe exercise intolerance, characterized by exertional fatigue and dyspnea, which is associated with poor quality of life. They also have intermittent acute exacerbations, with severe dyspnea, volume overload, body edema, and pulmonary edema. These acute exacerbations are often associated with dietary carelessness, medication nonadherence, high systolic blood pressure, atrial fibrillation (AF), myocardial ischemia, renal dysfunction, and pulmonary infections but can also occur in their absence.[11]