Evaluation and Diagnosis of HIV-associated Lung Disease

Stephanie Maximous, MD; Laurence Huang, MD; Alison Morris, MD, MS


Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;37(2):199-213. 

In This Article


Respiratory illnesses within the context of HIV infection are common and diverse, ranging from chronic noncommunicable conditions such as malignancy and COPD to virulent infections such as TB and PCP. Throughout the investigative process, it is essential to consider the changing spectrum of HIV disease and associated pulmonary conditions given the efficacy and accessibility of ART. Clinicians should remain aware that it is critical to evaluate for HIV and HIV-associated illnesses, as a new diagnosis of HIV or AIDS would shift the diagnostic and treatment algorithm. In these immunocompromised patients, there may also be more than one unifying diagnosis, and establishing a definitive diagnosis is crucial for appropriate initiation of therapeutic measures.