Evaluation and Diagnosis of HIV-associated Lung Disease

Stephanie Maximous, MD; Laurence Huang, MD; Alison Morris, MD, MS


Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;37(2):199-213. 

In This Article

Importance of Diagnosing HIV-associated Pulmonary Disease

Many HIV-infected patients present with nonspecific respiratory symptoms such as shortness of breath, dyspnea on exertion, or cough. The possible causes are myriad, ranging from infectious and noninfectious HIV-associated conditions to diseases completely unrelated to HIV (Table 1). Treatments for these conditions vary widely, and HIV-infected patients often present with more than one disease. Establishing a diagnosis is thus crucial for providing appropriate therapy and preventing transmission of communicable diseases. In fact, the inability to obtain a definitive diagnosis has been identified to be an independent risk factor for mortality.[1]