Evaluating a Novel 3D Stereoscopic Visual Display for Transanal Endoscopic Surgery

A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study

Aimee N. Di Marco, MA, MBBS, MRCS; Jenifa Jeyakumar, BSc; Philip J. Pratt, PhD; Guang-Zhong Yang, FREng; Ara W. Darzi, MD, FRS, FMedSci, FRCS, FACS


Annals of Surgery. 2016;263(1):36-42. 

In This Article


The novel 3D box viewer, developed by the authors, has been objectively shown to improve surgical performance in a simulated TES scenario across all levels of experience. This study has highlighted the importance of different modes of displaying 3D images and is the first to directly compare different stereoscopic displays. Future developments for the box viewer include further improvements in the ergonomics by suspending it from an overhead boom arm. Five clinical TES cases have already been conducted at our institution using this box viewer, as part of a pilot study; however, further use in the operating theatre with detailed assessment will, of course, be required in the future.