Comparing the Quality of Pro- and Anti-vaccination Online Information

A Content Analysis of Vaccination-Related Webpages

Gabriele Sak; Nicola Diviani; Ahmed Allam; Peter J. Schulz


BMC Public Health. 2016;16(38) 

In This Article


1"The customization of the search engines was done by limiting their search coverage to different pre-defined sets of websites […]. This manipulation was realized by configuring the context and annotation files of Google custom search engine".[22] Google custom search engine is available at:

2American Accreditation HealthCare Commission:

3NetScoring quality criteria:

4Internet Healthcare Coalition:

5As explained by Hobson-West,[43] the anti-vaccination group labeled as reformist is composed by those people "who are critical of vaccines but likely to provide at least partial support to vaccination".

6For the current study the category medical ownership was specifically designed to depict if on the page evaluated the name of a doctor or a medical corporation was present. However, it has to be noted that no disctinctions were made in case the webpage was affiliated with a single medical doctor or an internationally well-known health institution.

7The developed evaluating tool (OVIQC) can be obtained by e-mail at the following address (