Risk factors for increased bleeding include use of a drug or natural medicine that has the potential for bleeding (Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3); concomitant use of drugs causing drugdrug interactions (Table 4); advancing age; prior history of GI bleeding; decreased renal function; uncontrolled hypertension; regular or excessive use of alcohol; and the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Additional risk factors associated with NSAID administration include concomitant use of oral bisphosphonates or corticosteroids; chronic debilitating disorders, such as cardiovascular disease and rheumatoid arthritis; and cigarette smoking. The accompanying CASE STUDY focuses on risk factors and signs and symptoms of bleeding.
US Pharmacist. 2015;40(12):17-21. © 2015 Jobson Publishing