Higher Visceral Fat Area Increases the Risk of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency in Chinese Adults

Meilin Zhang; Ping Li; Yufeng Zhu; Hong Chang; Xuan Wang; Weiqiao Liu; Yuwen Zhang; Guowei Huang

Disclosures

Nutr Metab. 2015;12(50) 

In This Article

Abstract

Background: Visceral fat area (VFA), a novel sex-specific index for visceral fat obesity (VFO) might play a major role in the development of vitamin D deficiency. However, the association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among Chinese men and women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 1105 adults aged 20–70 years living in Tianjin who were randomly selected and medically examined. All subjects underwent the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method to estimate the VFA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH) D3) level was assayed by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and defined insufficiency and deficiency following recommended cutoffs. The association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was estimated using binary regression analysis.

Results: The total prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH) D3: 20–29 μg/L) and deficiency (25(OH) D3 <20 μg/L) were 26.60 % and 24.89 %, respectively. Significant negative association was observed for VFA with serum 25(OH) D3 levels in men and pre-menopausal women (P<0.05), not in post-menopausal women (P >0.05). Moreover, increased VFA was observed to be associated with higher vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency risk with a positive dose–response trend (P for trend<0.001). As compared to individuals with the lowest VFA, those who had the highest VFA were at 4.9-fold risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI): 1.792–13.365] in men and 1.8-fold risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency (95 % CI: 1.051–3.210) in pre-menopausal women, but not in post-menopausal women [odds ratio (OR) (95 % CI): 2.326(0.903–5.991)].

Conclusions: These results suggest that higher VFA increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in men and pre-menopausal women, but not in post-menopausal women. VFA is a better and convenience surrogate marker for visceral adipose measurement and could be used in identifying the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in routine health examination.

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