Effect of Breakfast Omission on Energy Intake and Evening Exercise Performance

David J. Clayton; Asya Barutcu; Claire Machin; David J. Stensel; Lewis J. James

Disclosures

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(12):2645-2652. 

In This Article

Results

Energy and Macronutrient Intake

A breakfast of 3095 ± 195 kJ was provided during BC. Subsequent total ad libitum energy intake was 11,685 ± 1893 kJ compared with 11,329 ± 2117 kJ, for BO and BC, respectively (P = 0.196). At lunch, energy intake was greater during BO (5804 ± 1817 kJ) than that during BC (4970 ± 1987 kJ; P < 0.01), whereas at dinner, there was a tendency for greater energy intake during BC (6359 ± 1631 kJ) than that during BO (5882 ± 1443 kJ; P = 0.052). Including breakfast, total energy intake was 19% ± 5% greater during BC (14,424 ± 2255 kJ) than that during BO (11,685 ± 1893 kJ) (Fig. 1).

Figure 1.

Energy intake (kJ) at each ad libitum meal and over 24 h during BC (▪) and BO (□). The left panel displays mean values, with vertical error bars representing SD. The right panel shows individual subjects' energy intake response at each ad libitum meal. †Indicates values are different from BC (P < 0.05).

CHO (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.05) intake was greater at lunch during BO compared with that during BC, but there was no difference in protein (P = 0.142) or fiber (P = 0.314) intake. The dinner meal was homogeneous in nature; therefore, macronutrient selection could not be gauged from this meal. Including breakfast, total CHO, protein, and fiber intake were greater (P < 0.01) and fat intake tended to be greater (P = 0.068) during BC compared with those during BO (Table 1).

Subjective Appetite Sensations

All appetite sensations (hunger, fullness, DTE, and PFC) showed a main effect of trial (P < 0.05) and time (P < 0.001) as well as an interaction effect (P < 0.001) (Fig. 2). Subjects reported increased hunger, DTE, and PFC, as well as lower fullness, in the postbreakfast period (0.5–4.5 h) during BO compared with those during BC (P < 0.01). Subjects also reported increased fullness at 7 h during BO compared with that during BC (P < 0.05). For AUC analysis, data were divided into three sections: breakfast to lunch (0–4.5 h), lunch to dinner (5–11 h), and postdinner (11.5–24 h). These analyses revealed differences between trials for all subjective appetite variables between breakfast and lunch (P < 0.01). Fullness was also increased between lunch and dinner during BO compared with that during BC (P < 0.05) (Table 2).

Figure 2.

Subjective sensations of hunger (A), fullness (B), DTE (C) and PFC (D) during BC (▪) and BO (○). Data points are means, with vertical error bars representing SEM. White rectangles indicate standard meal feeding; vertical hatched rectangles indicate an ad libitum meal; and black rectangles indicate exercise period. All appetite variables showed a main effect of time. †Indicates that values are significantly different between trials (P < 0.05).

Steady-state Exercise and Performance Test

Total work completed during the performance test was greater during BC (314 ± 53 kJ) than that during BO (300 ± 56 kJ; P < 0.05) (Fig. 3). There was no effect of trial order on exercise performance (P = 0.297). During the 30-min steady-state period, energy expenditure was greater during BO (1407 ± 210 kJ) than that during BC (1330 ± 191 kJ; P < 0.05). Fat oxidation was also greater during BO compared with that during BC (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in CHO oxidation between trials (P = 0.126). Average HR was higher during BO (155 ± 9 bpm) than that during BC (151 ± 8 bpm; P < 0.001) during the steady state but was not different during the performance test (P = 0.397). There were no differences in RPE either during the 30-min steady-state preload (P = 0.464) or the performance test (P = 0.712).

Figure 3.

Work completed (kJ) during the exercise performance test. The left panel displays mean work completed during BC (▪) and BO (□), with vertical error bars representing SD. The right panel displays individual subject_s performance during BC (▪) and BO (○). †Indicates that values are significantly different from BC (P < 0.05).

Blood Parameters

Plasma glucose (P < 0.05), insulin (P < 0.001), acylated ghrelin (P < 0.001), and GLP-1(7–36) (P < 0.05) all showed a main effect of time. There were no main effects of trial or interaction effects for plasma glucose (P ≥ 0.201), acylated ghrelin (P ≥ 0.189), or GLP-1(7–36) (P ≥ 0.056). There was an interaction effect for insulin (P < 0.01), with higher insulin concentrations at 4.5 h during BC than those during BO (P < 0.01), whereas insulin concentrations tended to be higher at 9 h during BO compared with those during BC (P = 0.073) (Table 3).

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