Endocrine Care of Transpeople Part II

A Review of Cross-sex Hormonal Treatments, Outcomes and Adverse Effects in Transwomen

Maria Cristina Meriggiola; Giulia Gava


Clin Endocrinol. 2015;83(5):607-615. 

In This Article


  • The endocrinologist is one of the key figures who, together with the mental health professional and possibly in a later stage with the surgeon, guides transwomen in a multistep pathway aimed at relief of the distress induced by GD.

  • Therapy must therefore be customized according to the specific needs of the subject, and its ultimate goal must be the overall improvement in the well-being and quality of life of the transwomen.

  • Following the described therapeutic and monitoring protocol, CHT (anti-androgens or GnRH agonists plus oestrogens) in transwomen can be considered safe.

  • Synthetic oestrogens such as ethinyl oestradiol, as well as equine-derived oestrogens, should be avoided to minimize thromboembolic risks especially in older transwomen and in those with risk factors.

  • Long-term check-ups should aim to decrease cardiovascular risks and should include prostate and breast cancer screenings.