Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder that affects the brain's ability to regulate the normal sleep-wake cycle, leading to excessive daytime sleepiness, including the sudden urge to sleep, and disturbed night-time sleep. Some patients also experience sudden episodes of cataplexy, potentially causing dangerous falls and increasing the risks for accidents, including car accidents. Symptoms of narcolepsy can be severe and significantly reduce quality of life.
Pitolisant "will add to the available treatment options for narcolepsy. It is a first-in-class medicine that acts on histamine H3 receptors in the brain. This leads to increased histamine release in the brain, thereby enhancing wakefulness and alertness," the EMA notes in a news release.
The EMA recommendation for approval of pitolisant is based on an evaluation of all available safety and efficacy data conducted by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP). The data include two pivotal placebo-controlled trials involving 259 patients, as well as one uncontrolled, open-label study involving 102 patients with narcolepsy and one supportive study in 105 patients.
The studies showed that pitolisant was effective in reducing excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy. The beneficial effect of the drug on cataplexy was demonstrated in one of the pivotal studies as well as in the supportive study.
No major safety concerns with pitolisant emerged in testing. Insomnia, headache, and nausea were among the most common adverse effects observed in the clinical trials, and the CHMP decided on measures to mitigate these risks, the EMA said. The CHMP also requested the company conduct a long-term safety study to further investigate the safety of the drug when used over long periods.
Pitolisant for narcolepsy received orphan designation from the Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products in 2007. Orphan designation provides medicine developers access to incentives, such as fee reductions for scientific advice, with the aim of encouraging the development of treatments for rare disorders.
The CHMP opinion will now be sent to the European Commission for the adoption of a decision on a European Union–wide marketing authorization. Once that has been granted, each member state will decide on price and reimbursement based on the potential role/use of this medicine in the context of its national health system.
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Cite this: EMA Recommends Approval of Pitolisant (Wakix) for Narcolepsy - Medscape - Nov 20, 2015.