Abstract and Introduction
Several types of urinary incontinence (UI) are described in the literature: functional, overflow, stress, urge, and mixed. While UI is less prevalent in men than in women, older adults of both sexes often experience lower urinary tract symptoms associated with overflow incontinence. Without adequate treatment, patients can develop a negative self-perception and experience poor quality of life. Iatrogenic UI is typically reversible and implicates drug classes that impair urine flow, bladder contractions, or cognition. Nonpharmacologic therapies are attempted for mild UI, whereas moderate-to-severe symptoms require medications and/or surgery, depending on the predominating symptomology. Regular patient follow-up is imperative for assessing the safety and efficacy of interventions for each type of UI.
Urinary incontinence (UI) is an inability to control the physical, physiological, or functional factors involved in the process of urination that leads to an involuntary loss of urine.[1,2] UI can be transient, acute, or reversible, or it can be established or chronic. UI is not a normal consequence of aging, but it is often reported in older adults.[1–3] There are several types of UI: functional, overflow, stress, urge, and mixed (Table 1).[2,4]
Patients with UI eventually develop poor self-rated health (or negative self-perception) and quality of life.[1,5] Symptoms of UI can interfere considerably with daily activities and interpersonal relationships, causing patients to experience social isolation, psychiatric conditions (e.g., anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation), other comorbidities (e.g., falls, fractures), and/or financial burdens.[1,2,5]
US Pharmacist. 2015;40(8):35-39. © 2015 Jobson Publishing