Signs and Symptoms Associated With Primary Tooth Eruption: A Clinical Trial of Nonpharmacological Remedies

Mahtab Memarpour; Elham Soltanimehr; Taherh Eskandarian

Disclosures

BMC Oral Health. 2015;15(88) 

In This Article

Results

At baseline, 270 children between the ages of 8 and 36 months (mean age 16 ± 7.2 months, range 8.4 to 32.2 months) were enrolled. During follow-up, 16 children were excluded from the study due to missed appointments (n = 5), parents' decision not to continue participating (n = 6), absence of tooth eruption (n = 3) or change in the place of residence (n = 2) (Fig. 1). The final sample consisted of 254 children who completed the study [128 (50.4 % female)]. There were no significant differences between the groups in sex ratio (p = 0.813) or mean age (p = 0.093). Mean age of the mothers was 30.95 ± 6.37 years. There was no significant difference between mothers in different groups in age (p = 0.121) or level of education (p = 0.735) (Table 1).

Figure 1.

Flow diagram of study participants and research methodology

Most of the children [252 (99.2 %)] had one or more signs and symptoms during tooth eruption. Table 2 shows the mean frequencies of different teething disturbances during the study period. The most frequent teething symptoms were drooling (92 %), sleep disturbances (82.3 %) and irritability (75.6 %).

The mean birth weight of the children was 2.91 ± 0.56 kg (range 1.50 to 4.20 kg). Children with low birth weight [n = 79 (33.6 %)] had more teething manifestations, and were 2.9 times as likely to develop diarrhea as normal birth weight children [OR = 2.90, CI 95 % (1.56–5.40), p = 0.001]. Low birth weight children (66 children, 83.5 %) were a 1.9 times as likely to have irritability as their normal birth weight counterparts [OR = 1.99, CI 95 %, (1.00–3.97), p = 0.047], and had more sleep disturbances (71 children, 89.9 %) than normal birth weight children [OR = 2.90, CI 95 % (1.00–5.241), p = 0.045]. There were no significant differences in other symptoms between children with low and normal birth weight (all p > 0.05).

Figure 2 shows mean body temperature during the study period. On the day of eruption, mean body temperature (36.70 ± 0.39 °C) was 0.16 °C higher than before eruption, and 0.17 °C higher than after eruption. The difference was significant for both comparisons (p < 0.001). The difference between body temperature on the days before (36.54 ± 0.40 °C) and after eruption (36.53 ± 0.39 °C) was not significant (p = 0.601). There were considerable discrepancies between body temperature reported by the mothers and recorded by the dentist (Table 3).

Figure 2.

Mean tympanic temperature (degrees Celsius) 1) before eruption, 2) on the day of eruption and 3) after eruption

The frequencies of different types of erupted teeth were 131 incisors (51.5 %), 22 canines (8.7 %) and 101 molars (39.8 %). There were no significant differences in tooth eruption disturbances according to the type of tooth (p > 0.05). Only canines were associated with significantly more loss of appetite in comparison to incisors (p = 0.033) and molars (p = 0.014).

Table 4 shows the frequencies of recovery from different symptoms in the children who had teething disturbances as mentioned in the method part.

Table 5 shows the frequency of mothers' reported level of effectiveness of each remedy. No side effects or unexpected effects were reported or observed in any group. There were significant differences in satisfaction between groups (p < 0.001), with the greatest effectiveness in group 4 (teething rings) and followed by groups 1 (cuddling) and 3 (rubbing the gums). The lowest levels of effectiveness were reported in group 2 (ice) and group 5 (food for chewing).

Comments

3090D553-9492-4563-8681-AD288FA52ACE

processing....