Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015

J. Erin Staples, MD; Joseph A. Bocchini Jr., MD; Lorry Rubin, MD; Marc Fischer, MD


Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2015;64(23):647-650. 

In This Article

Other Relevant Evidence

Pregnant Women

The proportion of women who develop yellow fever virus antibodies is variable and might be related to the trimester in which they received the vaccine. Among pregnant women who received yellow fever vaccine primarily in their third trimester, 39% (32 of 83) had evidence of seroconversion to yellow fever virus at 2–4 weeks post-vaccination, compared with 94% (89 of 95) in the general population.[12] Of 433 women vaccinated primarily in the first trimester (mean gestational age = 5.7 weeks; CI = 5.2–6.2), 425 (98%) developed yellow fever virus–specific neutralizing antibodies at 6 weeks post-vaccination.[13]

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

Data are limited on safety and immunogenicity for yellow fever vaccine in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. However, data suggest most recipients become seronegative to live viral vaccine antigens after transplantation.[14] Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend re-administering live viral vaccines, such as measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and varicella vaccine, to post-transplant patients if the recipient is seronegative and is no longer immunosuppressed.[15]

HIV-infected Persons

Two published studies provide immunogenicity data for yellow fever vaccines in HIV-infected persons.[16,17] Both studies found lower rates of yellow fever virus–specific neutralizing antibodies among HIV-infected persons compared with uninfected controls at 10 to 12 months post-vaccination. Although the mechanisms for the diminished immune response in HIV-infected persons are uncertain, an inverse correlation exists between immune response and HIV RNA levels and a positive correlation with CD4+ cell counts.[18]

Young Children

Twelve studies provided data on the initial immune response to yellow fever vaccine in children aged 4 months–10 years.[3] All studies included children who resided in endemic areas, and 10 studies included children who received at least one other vaccine at the same time as yellow fever vaccine. Based on a random effects model, the estimated seroconversion rate in 4,675 children was 93% (CI = 88%–96%). No difference was observed in the seroconversion rates between children aged <9 months and those aged ≥9 months.[3]

Other Higher-risk Groups

Over the preceding 20 years, 90% of all yellow fever cases were reported from countries in West Africa, and epidemiologic data suggest that travelers to West Africa are at the highest risk for travel-associated yellow fever.[5] Persons traveling to an area with an ongoing outbreak, persons traveling for a prolonged period in an endemic area, and laboratory workers who routinely handle wild-type yellow fever virus are also considered to be at higher risk for yellow fever virus exposure and disease than other persons for whom yellow fever vaccine is recommended.