Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015

J. Erin Staples, MD; Joseph A. Bocchini Jr., MD; Lorry Rubin, MD; Marc Fischer, MD


Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2015;64(23):647-650. 

In This Article

Yellow Fever Epidemiology and Risk for Disease in Travelers

Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. Worldwide, yellow fever virus causes an estimated 200,000 cases of clinical disease and 30,000 deaths annually.[4] Clinical disease ranges from a mild, nonspecific febrile illness to severe disease with jaundice and hemorrhage. The case-fatality ratio for severe yellow fever is 20%–50%.[5] Because no specific treatment exists, prevention through vaccination is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality from yellow fever virus infection.

The risk of a traveler acquiring yellow fever varies based on season, location, activities, and duration of their travel. For a 2-week stay, the estimated risk for illness attributed to yellow fever for an unvaccinated traveler to West Africa is 50 cases per 100,000 population; for South America, the risk for illness is five cases per 100,000 population.[6]