Male Central Hypogonadism Secondary to Exogenous Androgens

A Review of the Drugs and Protocols Highlighted by the Online Community of Users for Prevention and/or Mitigation of Adverse Effects

Stamatios Karavolos; Michael Reynolds; Nikoletta Panagiotopoulou; Kevin McEleny; Michael Scally; Richard Quinton


Clin Endocrinol. 2015;82(5):624-632. 

In This Article


We used Google, the most popular online search engine (Search Engine Watch, 2012), along with the search terms listed in Table 1 to identify Internet sites related to methods and substances used to counteract the symptoms of hypogonadism secondary to exogenous steroid use. We performed searches using those terms and noted the number of websites containing each search term. This does not reveal whether the websites actually focus on that content, but rather whether the search term appeared somewhere on the sites. This strategy provided a rough indicator of the prevalence or dominance of the search term in the literature and how popular is the online usage.

We selected the top twenty links generated by our search (Table 2) and navigated through them to obtained details of (i) the methods and substances advised to counteract the side effect of hypogonadism and (ii) the quality of medical information and advice provided online with regard to the use of these methods. Best results were yielded by utilizing the terminology the AAS users commonly use, such as 'postcycle therapy', 'stacking' or 'steroid recovery'. We included nonmedical terms in our search to identify sites and results which were not just from the medical and research communities. We then navigated through links within the top 20 websites to gain more understanding. We found that a vast amount of information appears on private websites and online discussion groups and forums. Many of these websites provide information on how to use these substances but also links and advice on how to obtain them online.