Evidence Supporting the Biologic Nature of Gender Identity

Aruna Saraswat, MD; Jamie D. Weinand, BA, BS; Joshua D. Safer, MD


Endocr Pract. 2015;21(2):199-204. 

In This Article


Current data suggest a biologic etiology for transgender identity. Studies of DSD patients and neuroanatomical studies provide the strongest evidence for the organic basis of transgender identity. Because the sample sizes of most studies on this subject were small, the conclusions must be interpreted with caution. Further research is required to assign specific biologic mechanisms for gender identity.