Early Childhood Gut Microbiomes Show Strong Geographic Differences Among Subjects at High Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

Kaisa M. Kemppainen; Alexandria N. Ardissone; Austin G. Davis-Richardson; Jennie R. Fagen; Kelsey A. Gano; Luis G. Léon-Novelo; Kendra Vehik; George Casella; Olli Simell; Anette G. Ziegler; Marian J. Rewers; Åke Lernmark; William Hagopian; Jin-Xiong She; Jeffrey P. Krischer; Beena Akolkar; Desmond A. Schatz; Mark A. Atkinson; Eric W. Triplett

Disclosures

Diabetes Care. 2015;38(2):329-332. 

In This Article

Supplementary Data

The Teddy Study Group

Colorado Clinical Center: Marian Rewers, M.D., Ph.D., PI1,4,5,6,10,11, Katherine Barriga12, Kimberly Bautista12, Judith Baxter9,10,12,15, George Eisenbarth, M.D., Ph.D., Nicole Frank2, Ruth Bedoy2, Patricia Gesualdo2,6,12,14,15, Michelle Hoffman12,13,14, Lisa Ide, Rachel Karban12, Edwin Liu, M.D.13, Jill Norris, Ph.D.2,3,12, Kathleen Waugh6,7,12,15, Adela Samper-Imaz, Andrea Steck, M.D.3,14. University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes.

Georgia/Florida Clinical Center: Jin-Xiong She, Ph.D., PI1,3,4,11,†, Desmond Schatz, M.D.*4,5,7,8, Diane Hopkins12, Leigh Steed12,13,14,15, Jamie Thomas*6,12, Katherine Silvis2, Michael Haller, M.D.*14, Meena Shankar*2, Eleni Sheehan*, Melissa Gardiner, Richard McIndoe, Ph.D., Haitao Liu, M.D.†, John Nechtman†, Ashok Sharma, Joshua Williams, Gabriela Foghis, Stephen W. Anderson, M.D.^. Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University. *University of Florida, †Jinfiniti Biosciences LLC, Augusta, GA, ^Pediatric Endocrine Associates, Atlanta, GA.

Germany Clinical Center: Anette-G. Ziegler, M.D., PI1,3,4,11, Andreas Beyerlein Ph.D.2, Ezio Bonifacio Ph.D.*5, Lydia Henneberger2,12, Michael Hummel, M.D.13, Sandra Hummel, Ph.D.2, Kristina Foterek¥2, Mathilde Kersting, Ph.D.¥2, Annette Knopff7, Sibylle Koletzko, M.D.¶13, Stephanie Krause, Claudia Peplow12, Maren Pflüger Ph.D.6, Roswith Roth, Ph.D.9, Julia Schenkel2,12, Joanna Stock9,12, Elisabeth Strauss12, Katharina Warncke, M.D.14, Christiane Winkler, Ph.D.2,12,15. Forschergruppe Diabetes e.V. and Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, and Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München. *Center for Regenerative Therapies, TU Dresden, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ludwig Maximillians University Munich, ¥Research Institute for Child Nutrition, Dortmund

Finland Clinical Center: Olli G. Simell, M.D., Ph.D., PI¥^1,4,11,13, Jorma Toppari, M.D., Ph.D., Co-PI¥4, Annika Adamsson, Ph.D.¥, Heikki Hyöty, M.D., Ph.D.*±6, Jorma Ilonen, M.D., Ph.D.¥ ¶3, Miia Kähönenμ¤, Mikael Knip, M.D., Ph.D.*±5, Annika Koivu¥^, Mirva Koreasalo*±§2, Kalle Kurppa, M.D., Ph.D.*±13, Maria Lönnrot, M.D., Ph.D.*±6, Elina Mäntymäki¥^, Katja Multasuoμ¤, Juha Mykkänen, Ph.D.^¥ 3, Tiina Niininen±*12, Kirsti Nanto-Salonen, M.D., Ph.D.¥^12, Mia Nyblom*±, Jenna Rautanen±§, Anne Riikonen*±, Minna Romo¥^, Aaro Simell¥^, Barbara Simell¥^9,12,15, Satu Simell, M.D., Ph.D.*±13, Tuula Simell, Ph.D.¥^9,12, Ville Simell^¥13, Maija Sjöberg¥^12,14, Aino Steniusμ¤12, Eeva Varjonen¥^12, Riitta Veijola, M.D., Ph.D.μ¤14, Suvi M. Virtanen, M.D., Ph.D.*±§2, Mari Åkerlund*±§. ¥University of Turku, *University of Tampere, μUniversity of Oulu, ^Turku University Hospital, ±Tampere University Hospital, ¤Oulu University Hospital, §National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland, University of Kuopio.

Sweden Clinical Center: Åke Lernmark, Ph.D., PI1,3,4,5,6,8,10,11,15, Daniel Agardh, M.D., Ph.D.13, Carin Andrén Aronsson2,13, Maria Ask, Jenny Bremer, Ulla-Marie Carlsson, Corrado Cilio, Ph.D., M.D.5, Camilla Ekstrand, Emelie Ericson-Hallström2, Lina Fransson, Thomas Gard, Joanna Gerardsson, Rasmus Håkansson, Monica Hansen, Gertie Hansson12,14, Susanne Hyberg, Fredrik Johansen, Berglind Jonasdottir M.D., Linda Jonsson, Helena Larsson M.D., Ph.D. 6,14, Barbro Lernmark, Ph.D., Maria Månsson-Martinez, Maria Markan, Theodosia Massadakis, Jessica Melin12, Zeliha Mestan, Anita Nilsson, Kobra Rahmati, Anita Ramelius, Monica Sedig Järvirova, Sara Sibthorpe, Birgitta Sjöberg, Ulrica Swartling, Ph.D.9,12, Erika Trulsson, Carina Törn, Ph.D. 3,15, Anne Wallin, Åsa Wimar12,14, Sofie Åberg. Lund University.

Washington Clinical Center: William A. Hagopian, M.D., Ph.D., PI1,3,4, 5, 6,7,11,13, 14, Xiang Yan, M.D., Michael Killian6,7,12,13, Claire Cowen Crouch12,14,15, Kristen M. Hay2, Jennifer Skidmore2, Carissa Adams, Stephen Ayres, Brandi Bratrude, David Coughlin, Greer Fowler, Czarina Franco, Carla Hammar, Kayleen Dunson, Kayleen Dunson, Diana Heaney, Rachel Hervey, Renee Kindschi, Patrick Marcus, Arlene Meyer, Denise Mulenga, Elizabeth Scott, Joshua Stabbert, Viktoria Stepitova, Nancy Williams, John Willis. Pacific Northwest Diabetes Research Institute.

Pennsylvania Satellite Center: Dorothy Becker, M.D., Margaret Franciscus12, MaryEllen Dalmagro-Elias Smith2, Ashi Daftary, M.D., Mary Beth Klein. Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC.

Data Coordinating Center: Jeffrey P. Krischer, Ph.D.,PI1,4,5,10,11, Michael Abbondondolo, Sarah Austin-Gonzalez, Rasheedah Brown12,15, Brant Burkhardt, Ph.D.5,6, Martha Butterworth2, David Cuthbertson, Christopher Eberhard, Steven Fiske9, Dena Garcia, Veena Gowda, David Hadley, Ph.D.3,13, Hye-Seung Lee, Ph.D.1,2,13,15, Shu Liu, Xiang Liu, Ph.D.2,9,12, Kristian Lynch, Ph.D. 5,6,9,15, Jamie Malloy, Cristina McCarthy12,15, Wendy McLeod2,5,6,13,15, Chris Shaffer, Laura Smith, Ph.D.9,12, Susan Smith12,15, Roy Tamura, Ph.D.1,2,13, Ulla Uusitalo, Ph.D.2,15, Kendra Vehik, Ph.D.4,5,6,14,15, Earnest Washington, Jimin Yang, Ph.D., R.D.2,15. University of South Florida.

Project scientist: Beena Akolkar, Ph.D.1,3,4,5, 6,7,10,11. National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

Other contributors: Kasia Bourcier, Ph.D.5, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Thomas Briese, Ph.D.6,15, Columbia University. Suzanne Bennett Johnson, Ph.D.9,12, Florida State University. Steve Oberste, Ph.D.6, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Eric Triplett, Ph.D.6, University of Florida.

Autoantibody Reference Laboratories: Liping Yu, M.D.^ 5, Dongmei Miao, M.D.^, Polly Bingley, M.D., FRCP*5, Alistair Williams*, Kyla Chandler*, Saba Rokni*, Anna Long Ph.D.*, Joanna Boldison*, Jacob Butterly*, Jessica Broadhurst*, Gabriella Carreno*, Claire Caygill*, Rachel Curnock*, Peter Easton*, Ivey Geoghan*, Julia Goode*, Anna Long*, Molly Payne*, James Pearson*, Charles Reed*, Sophie Ridewood*, Rebecca Wyatt*. ^Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, *School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol UK.

Cortisol Laboratory: Elisabeth Aardal Eriksson, M.D., Ph.D., Ewa Lönn Karlsson. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.

Dietary Biomarkers Laboratory: Iris Erlund, Ph.D.2, Irma Salminen, Jouko Sundvall, Jaana Leiviskä, Mari Lehtonen, Ph.D. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

HbA1c Laboratory: Randie R. Little, Ph.D., Alethea L. Tennill. Diabetes Diagnostic Laboratory, Dept. of Pathology, University of Missouri School of Medicine.

HLA Reference Laboratory: Henry Erlich, Ph.D.3, Steven J. Mack, Ph.D., Anna Lisa Fear. Center for Genetics, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Teodorica Bugawan, Maria Alejandrino. Department of Human Genetics, Roche Molecular Systems.

Metabolomics Laboratory: Oliver Fiehn, Ph.D., Bill Wikoff, Ph.D., Tobias Kind, Ph.D., Mine Palazoglu, Joyce Wong, Gert Wohlgemuth. UC Davis Metabolomics Center.

Microbiome and Viral Metagenomics Laboratory: Joseph F. Petrosino, Ph.D.6. Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine.

OGTT Laboratory: Santica M. Marcovina, Ph.D., Sc.D., Vinod P. Gaur, Ph.D., Northwest Lipid Metabolism and Diabetes Research Laboratories, University of Washington.

Proteomics Laboratory: Richard Smith, Ph.D., Thomas Metz, Ph.D. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Repository: Heather Higgins, Sandra Ke. NIDDK Biosample Repository at Fisher BioServices.

RNA Laboratory and Gene Expression Laboratory: Jin-Xiong She, Ph.D., PI1,3,4,11, Richard McIndoe, Ph.D., Haitao Liu, M.D., John Nechtman, Yansheng Zhao, Na Jiang, M.D. Jinfiniti Biosciences, LLC.

SNP Laboratory: Stephen S. Rich, Ph.D.3, Wei-Min Chen, Ph.D.3, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Ph.D.3, Emily Farber, Rebecca Roche Pickin, Ph.D., Jordan Davis, Dan Gallo. Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia.

Committees:

1Ancillary Studies, 2Diet, 3Genetics, 4Human Subjects/Publicity/Publications, 5Immune Markers, 6Infectious Agents, 7Laboratory Implementation, 8Maternal Studies, 9Psychosocial, 10Quality Assurance, 11Steering, 12Study Coordinators, 13Celiac Disease, 14Clinical Implementation, 15Quality Assurance Subcommittee on Data Quality.

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