Differences Between CD and NCGS
CD is an autoimmune disorder and disease of malabsorption that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is associated with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, known as HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. HLA-DQ2 is found in up to 90% to 95% of patients with CD, whereas most of the remaining patients have HLA-DQ8. With CD, the ensuing inflammatory response in the small intestine leads to mucosal villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, and lymphocyte infiltration. Unlike CD, the small intestine biopsy in NCGS is usually characterized by normal mucosa or a mild increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes. Based on current evidence, it appears that NCGS does not have a strong hereditary basis, is not associated with malabsorption, and does not have an increased risk for long-term complications, such as autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancy.
Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 2014;10(9):666-673. © 2014 Elsevier Science, Inc.