Does Post-bleaching Fluoridation Affect the Further Demineralization of Bleached Enamel? An In Vitro Study

Hande Kemaloğlu; Hüseyin Tezel; Zeynep Ergücü


BMC Oral Health. 2014;14(113) 

In This Article


Background Topical fluoride agents have been shown to be the most effective method in treating demineralized enamel after in-office bleaching treatments. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effects of two different post-bleaching fluoridation agents: 1.5% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) (9200 ppm) and 2.1% sodium fluoride (NaF) (9500 ppm), on the calcium loss of enamel after an acidic challenge.

Methods Ten maxillary premolars were sectioned into four pieces and then divided into the following four groups: Group 1: Control, kept in artificial saliva, no treatment; Group 2: 38% hydrogen peroxide (HP); Group 3: 38% HP followed by 1.5% TiF4; Group 4: 38% HP followed by 2.1% NaF solution. The specimens were subjected to demineralization for 16 days, refreshing the solution every 4 days; that is, on the 4th, 8th, 12th, and 16th days. Calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration was determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using Friedman and Wilcoxon tests (p = 0.05).

Results The loss of Ca2+ in each of the test groups was compared with that of the control group, depicting that there was a statistically significant difference among the groups after 4, 8, 12, and 16 days and in total (p < 0.05). The calcium released from the fluoride-applied groups was lower when compared with the 38% HP and control group. At the end of the 16th day, the total amount of calcium released from the TiF4-treated samples (9.12 mg/mL) was less than from the NaF-treated samples (13.67 mg/mL) (p < 0.05).

Conclusions Regarding the results of our in vitro study, the risk of further demineralization was significantly reduced with the use of TiF4 and NaF after bleaching with 38% HP. TiF4was found to be more effective in preventing Ca2+ release owing to acid attack when compared with NaF. In the case of an intra-oral acidic exposure, the use of topical 1.5% TiF4 and 2.1% NaF agents might be beneficial after bleaching with 38% HP.