Liver Masses: A Clinical, Radiologic, and Pathologic Perspective

Sudhakar K. Venkatesh; Vishal Chandan; Lewis R. Roberts


Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12(9):1414-1429. 

In This Article

Endoscopic, Interventional Radiologic, and Molecular Pathologic Techniques for Evaluation of Liver Mass Lesions

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, and endoscopic ultrasonography allow access to detailed imaging of the biliary system and the hepatic hilum, pancreas, and associated lymph nodes. Ancillary techniques such as cholangioscopy, bile duct biopsy and brushing, lymph node sampling by fine-needle aspiration, and cytologic and fluorescence in situ hybridization examination of cells obtained from pancreatobiliary strictures or lymph nodes can further enhance the diagnostic armamentarium.[23,24]