Type 1 Diabetes Through the Life Span: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association

Jane L. Chiang; M. Sue Kirkman; Lori M.B. Laffel; Anne L. Peters


Diabetes Care. 2014;37(7):2034-2054. 

In This Article


Hypoglycemia risk is the limiting step in the treatment of type 1 diabetes at any age. Because current methods of blood glucose detection and insulin replacement are imperfect (though improved from prior eras), hypoglycemia risk is invariably present. Patient education,[80] frequent SMBG, and CGM can help detect hypoglycemia and allow for adjustments in insulin dosing and carbohydrate intake. Severe hypoglycemia rates increase with antecedent episodes of hypoglycemia, age, and duration of diabetes; thus, this is an issue that must be reassessed frequently.[81] Hypoglycemia unawareness is related to a reduced sympathoadrenal response to hypoglycemia; it can occur in the setting of recurrent hypoglycemia or autonomic failure and can be reversed by scrupulous avoidance of hypoglycemia. Patients should be screened to determine the threshold at which hypoglycemia symptoms occur; if the threshold is suggestive of hypoglycemia unawareness, the treatment goals and regimen should be revisited and counseling regarding appropriate self-monitoring before critical tasks should be reinforced.[82]

Oral carbohydrate is the treatment of choice for self-treatment or for the treatment of hypoglycemic adults and children who are alert and able to eat. Glucagon is used for severe hypoglycemia. In children, small studies have led to the concept of using age-based mini-dose glucagon if the child is alert but not able to eat.[83]


  • Individuals with type 1 diabetes, or their caregivers, should be asked about symptomatic and asymptomatic hypoglycemia at each encounter. (E)

  • Glucose (15–20 g) is the preferred treatment for the conscious individual with hypoglycemia, although any form of carbohydrate may be used. If the SMBG result 15 min after treatment shows continued hypoglycemia, the treatment should be repeated. Once blood glucose concentration returns to normal, the individual should consume a meal or snack to prevent recurrence of hypoglycemia. (E)

  • Glucagon should be prescribed for all individuals with type 1 diabetes. Caregivers or family members of these individuals should be instructed in its administration. (E)

  • Hypoglycemia unawareness or one or more episodes of severe hypoglycemia should trigger reevaluation of the treatment regimen. (E)

  • Insulin-treated patients with hypoglycemia unawareness or an episode of severe hypoglycemia should be advised to raise their glycemic targets to strictly avoid further hypoglycemia for at least several weeks to partially reverse hypoglycemia unawareness and reduce the risk of future episodes. (B)