Measles — United States, January 1 – May 23, 2014

Paul A. Gastañaduy, MD; Susan B. Redd; Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, MSN; Jennifer S. Rota, MPH; Paul A. Rota, PhD;   William J. Bellini, PhD; Jane F. Seward, MBBS; Gregory S. Wallace, MD

Disclosures

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2014;63(22):496-499. 

In This Article

Introduction

Measles is a highly contagious, acute viral illness that can lead to serious complications and death. Although measles elimination (i.e., interruption of year-round endemic transmission) was declared in the United States in 2000,[1] importations of measles cases from endemic areas of the world continue to occur, leading to secondary measles cases and outbreaks in the United States, primarily among unvaccinated persons.[2] To update national measles data in the United States, CDC evaluated cases reported by states from January 1 through May 23, 2014. A total of 288 confirmed measles cases have been reported to CDC, surpassing the highest reported yearly total of measles cases since elimination (220 cases reported in 2011).[3] Fifteen outbreaks accounted for 79% of cases reported, including the largest outbreak reported in the United States since elimination (138 cases and ongoing). The large number of cases this year emphasizes the need for health-care providers to have a heightened awareness of the potential for measles in their communities and the importance of vaccination to prevent measles.

Confirmed measles cases in the United States are reported by state and local health departments to CDC using a standard case definition.* A measles case is considered confirmed if it is laboratory-confirmed or meets the clinical case definition (an illness characterized by a generalized rash lasting ≥3 days, a temperature of ≥101°F [≥38.3°C], and cough, coryza, and/or conjunctivitis) and is linked epidemiologically to a confirmed case. Measles cases are laboratory confirmed if there is detection in serum of measles-specific immunoglobulin M, isolation of measles virus, or detection of measles virus nucleic acid from a clinical specimen. Cases are considered imported if at least some of the exposure period (7–21 days before rash onset) occurred outside the United States and rash occurred within 21 days of entry into the United States, with no known exposure to measles in the United States during that time. An outbreak of measles is defined as a chain of transmission of three or more confirmed cases.

Patients with reported measles cases this year have ranged in age from 2 weeks to 65 years; 18 (6%) were aged <12 months, 48 (17%) were aged 1–4 years, 71 (25%) were aged 5–19 years, and 151 (52%) were aged ≥20 years. Forty-three (15%) were hospitalized, and complications have included pneumonia (five patients), hepatitis (one), pancytopenia (one), and thrombocytopenia (one). No cases of encephalitis and no deaths have been reported.

Measles cases have been reported from 18 states and New York City. Most cases were reported from Ohio (138), California (60), and New York City (26). Fifteen outbreaks have accounted for 227 (79%) of the 288 cases. The median outbreak size has been five cases (range: 3–138 cases). There is an ongoing outbreak involving 138 cases, occurring primarily among unvaccinated Amish communities in Ohio.

Of the 288 cases, 280 (97%) were associated with importations from at least 18 countries. The source of measles acquisition could not be identified for eight (3%) cases. Forty-five direct importations (40 U.S. residents returning from abroad and five foreign visitors) have been reported. Almost half (22 [49%]) of these importations were travelers returning from the Philippines, where a large outbreak has been occurring since October 2013. Imported cases were also associated with travel from other countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (seven cases), as well as countries in the WHO South-East Asia (eight), European (four), Americas (three), and Eastern Mediterranean (one) regions. Measles genotype information was obtained from 103 (36%) of the 288 measles cases. Four measles virus genotypes were identified: B3 (67 cases), D9 (23), D8 (12), and H1 (one) ( Table 1 ).

Most of the 288 measles cases reported this year have been in persons who were unvaccinated (200 [69%]) or who had an unknown vaccination status (58 [20%]); 30 (10%) were in persons who were vaccinated. Among the 195 U.S. residents who had measles and were unvaccinated, 165 (85%) declined vaccination because of religious, philosophical, or personal objections, 11 (6%) were missed opportunities for vaccination, and 10 (5%) were too young to receive vaccination (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Percentage of U.S. residents with measles who were unvaccinated (N = 195), by reason for not receiving measles vaccine — United States, January 1–May 23, 2014.

The figure shows the percentage of U.S. residents with measles who were unvaccinated (N = 195), by reason for not receiving measles vaccine, in the United States during January 1-May 23, 2014. A total of 165 (85%) declined vaccination because of religious, philosophical, or personal objections, 11 (6%) were missed opportunities for vaccination, and 10 (5%) were too young to receive vaccination.

Includes person ineligible for measles vaccination, generally those aged <12 months.
§ Includes children aged 16 months–4 years who had not been vaccinated and international travelers aged ≥6 months who were unvaccinated but had no exemption.
Includes persons who were known to be unvaccinated and the reason was unknown, and those who were born before 1957 and presumed to be immune.

* Available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt07-measles.pdf

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