Paper Money and Coins as Potential Vectors of Transmissible Disease

Emmanouil Angelakis; Esam I Azhar; Fehmida Bibi; Muhammad Yasir; Ahmed K Al-Ghamdi; Ahmad M Ashshi; Adel G Elshemi; Didier Raoult


Future Microbiol. 2014;9(2):249-261. 

In This Article

Persistence of Pathogens on Surfaces

Important factors for the survival of pathogenic agents on surfaces are the presence of organic matter, solar irradiation, temperature and humidity.[7] A recent review reported that many Gram-positive bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, and Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Shigella spp., can survive for months on surfaces.[8] In addition, mycobacteria and Clostridium difficile can survive for months, while other pathogens, such as Bordetella pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus vulgaris or Vibrio cholera, persist only for days.[8]Candida albicans can survive for up to 4 months on surfaces, whereas respiratory tract viruses, such as Coronavirus, Coxsackievirus, Influenza virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated virus or Rhinovirus, can persist on surfaces for a few days.[8] Noroviruses are environmentally stable, able to survive both freezing and heating (although not thorough cooking), and resistant to many common chemical disinfectants, and can persist on surfaces for up to 2 weeks.[9] Herpes viruses persist for only a few hours to 7 days, and viruses of the GI tract, such as Astrovirus, HAV, Poliovirus and Rotavirus, persist for approximately 2 months.[8]