Paper Money and Coins as Potential Vectors of Transmissible Disease

Emmanouil Angelakis; Esam I Azhar; Fehmida Bibi; Muhammad Yasir; Ahmed K Al-Ghamdi; Ahmad M Ashshi; Adel G Elshemi; Didier Raoult


Future Microbiol. 2014;9(2):249-261. 

In This Article

Search Strategy

We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Google and Google Scholar databases for peer-reviewed, English-language articles with no date restrictions. The search terms were combinations of 'bacteria, virus, yeast, fungi, infection, transmission' and 'coins', 'currency notes', 'banknotes', 'fomites', 'dirty money', 'hands' and 'surfaces'. The literature was also searched for every pathogen identified by the previous search; for example, 'S. aureus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and so on' and 'coins', 'currency notes', 'banknotes', 'fomites', 'dirty money', 'hands' and 'surfaces'. We also examined the references cited in the identified articles and searched PubMed for other papers by the authors of the identified articles. When necessary, we contacted the corresponding authors for further clarification or additional information.